Abstract: This paper describes the theoretical basis and development of the iSELF: an Internet‑tool for Self‑Evaluation and Learner Feedback to stimulate self‑directed learning in ubiquitous learning environments. In ubiquitous learning, learners follow t heir own trails of interest, scaffolded by coaches, peers and tools for thinking and learning. Ubiquitous learning solutions include on‑ and off‑line, formal and informal learning. To benefit from its possibilities, learners need to develop competencies f or self‑directed learning. To do so, a self‑evaluation tool can help the learner to get insight in his/her own development, to manage and monitor his/her own learning process, to collaborate in learning, to relate the learning to 'real life' needs, and to take control over educational decisions. The iSELF was developed in an iterative process, complying to the following high level requirements: (1) Enabling learning anytime, anywhere; (2) Supporting self‑directed learning; (3) Evaluating learner, le arning solutions and job‑needs; (4) Assessing learner competencies; (5) Using card‑sort method for questionnaires; (6) Facilitating questionnaires 'under construction'; and (7) User‑friendly design. The resulting online tool contained a card‑sort module, looking somewhat like a 'solitaire' game, a profile module to evaluate core competencies, and a feedback module to suggest learning possibilities. For illustration, 14 different studies that contributed to the development of iSELF and to the devel opment of self‑evaluation questionnaires compliant to iSELF, are briefly discussed. These illustrative studies included various populations: e.g. students, employees from small and medium enterprises, crisis management organizations, and the military. Use fulness and usability of the self‑evaluation tool were valued positively. The iSELF contributes to an adaptive ubiquitous learning environment in which the learner can make the educational decisions according to self‑directed learning principles. The iSEL F will stimulate self‑directed learning in a ubiquitous le
Keywords: Keywords: self-evaluation, self-assessment, internet-tool, ubiquitous learning, self-directed learning, feedback
Abstract: Virtual collaboration continues to gain in significance and is attracting attention also as virtual collaborative learning (VCL) in education. This paper addresses aspects of VCL that we identified as critical in a series of courses named Net Economy: (1) technical infrastructure, (2) motivation and collaboration, and (3) assessment and evaluation. Net Economy is an international online setting, focusing on the business impact of new technologies and is highly notable for the divergent educational and cultural backgrounds of its participants. Having been subject to research from the onset in 2008, in which approximately 10 students were analysed and evaluated, the course has continued to gain significant success as a learning tool, wit h over 150 students currently enrolled throughout the various course cycles. In this paper we focus on how we implemented changes with regard to the above mentioned critical elements as part of canonical action research between the last course cycles. We outline the general learning scenario behind our VCL‑courses, describe problems that we identified with the help of evaluation results and explain solution approaches and the impact of their implementation. The paper aims to provide a comprehensive exampl e for virtual collaborative learning as well as explaining and exemplifying a systematic approach of improving complex e‑learning settings through a series of steps, developed to ease the transition between each stage.
Keywords: Keywords: Social Networking Services, Virtual Collaborative Learning, Virtual Team Work, Web 2.0, International Cooperation, Community of Inquiry Framework, CoI
Abstract. Social media has created new possibilities for digitally native students to engage, interact and collaborate in learning tasks that foster learning processes and the overall learning experience. Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article discusses experiences and challenges of using a social media‑enhanced collaborative learning environment in case‑based teaching of foreign languages. Based on social constructivismwe argue that foreign language learning is an individual as well a s collaborative process and cognitive processes underlying learning and in particular foreign language learning are facilitated by means of social media and especially for new generation of students. This article contributes to understanding of how best t o make use of social media in an educational setting and how learning may be fostered in social, collaborative knowledge construction, sharing and building. The case‑study findings indicate that collaborative learning processes that are embedded in a soci al media enhanced learning platform are supportive and conducive to successful problem‑solving which leads to successful adult foreign language learning. Furthermore, the study reports on some of the challenges in using social media and collaborative grou p work for teaching and learning at university level.
Keywords: Keywords: Web 2.0, collaborative learning, foreign language learning, learning, case-based teaching, social learning, cognitive processes
Pilot Program of Online Learning in Three Small High Schools: Considerations of Learning Styles pp353‑366
Abstract: This case study was conducted in three schools in Maine, United States. The goal of this qualitative research was two‑fold: to describe the process used by a small educational consortium as it initiated formal online education, and to view this experience through the lens of students' preferred learning styles. The United States does not have a national curriculum. While the government of Maine offers some state‑level support for schools, many educational issues and initiatives are controlled a t the local level. Additionally, Maine is one of the most rural states in the country and the isolated nature of these schools adds to the dearth of curricular opportunities for students ages 14‑18. Data was collected using the Felder & Solomon (1993) Learning Styles Questionnaire and semi‑structured, bi‑semester interviews with ten students. Open and axial coding was used to identify themes, which were subsequently triangulated with a document review and the two sets of interviews with the three adul t coordinators. Findings fell within two groupings: data that substantiated prior research, and data that offer contradictory conclusions. Learning styles have an important place in online learning. However transactional distance, teacher response time, group work, and school filtering issues also emerged as critical. Conclusions carry implications for online educators, school administrators, and policy makers
Keywords: Keywords: online education, secondary education, learning styles, case study, transactional distance
Impact of Multi‑media Tutorials in a Computer Science Laboratory Course An Empirical Study pp367‑375
Abstract: Higher education institutes of North America, Europe and far‑east Asia have been leveraging the advances in ICT for quite some time. However, research based knowledge on the use of ICT in the higher education institutes of central and south‑east Asia is still not readily available. The study presented in this paper explores a variant of teaching and learning laboratory sessions using multi‑media in an Indian engineering institute. Multi‑media tutorials were used to self‑teach Linux operating sys tem to the second and third year students of IT and non‑IT branches of engineering degree program. The paper contains the description of the sessions conducted, empirical data, results and impact on students learning. The results reveal that multi‑media tutorials can be highly useful and beneficial in the early years of engineering to create the solid footing needed for further studies. They act as multipliers for capacity building efforts of students and encourage self‑learning.
Abstract: Although there are tools to assess students readiness in an online learning context, little is known about the psychometric properties of the tools used or not. A systematic review of 5107 published and unpublished papers identified in a litera ture search on student online readiness assessment tools between 1990 and 2010 was conducted. The objective of this paper was to identify via a systematic review different tools allowing to assess the level of students preparation in an online learning e nvironment and which were published or not in scientific journals, and determine which of these tools have been validated. The results of the systematic review show that a standard tool does not exist, and that only ten instruments have been developed and published over the past 20 years to assess students readiness. In addition, few tools published demonstrated good psychometric qualities, and many unpublished tools, considered as homemade tools, were internally developed in the universities by a team o f professors without regard to their psychometric quality. Also, it appears that the tools that were published in scientific journals are rarely used by universities that offer online courses. Generally, the universities prefer to develop their own instru ment that fits their online programs.
Keywords: Keywords: Systematic review of online preparedness, Tool Validity, Readiness for online learning, Internet-delivered training
Abstract: This study re‑visits an organisation that defined its knowledge‑management strategy in 2008‑9 applying an established strategy‑intellectual capital alignment framework. It addresses questions How has knowledge management evolved at ENTEL, and w hat lessons can be learnt? Does the strategy‑knowledge management alignment framework applied at ENTEL in 2008‑9 still hold today? The enquiry applies qualitative research in the form of a single case study, applying semi‑structured interviews and analy sing the evidence through coding at a phrase level. It arrives at some interesting findings, such as that leadership of communities of practice (COPs) is critical to their success, at least in the early stages of their implementation. Also that the inco rporation of generation Y (GY) into the workforce is changing the culture and openness to sharing knowledge, and thus accelerating the adoption of social networking (SN) tools, but the barriers to full deployment are still embedded in the older genera tion of senior and middle managers. Finally, it also emerges from the study that the paradigm by which organisations needed to choose between people‑driven and technology‑driven networks may no longer be valid: Due to changes in culture, to the need to sp eed up knowledge transfer, to the imperative for innovation and to the advent of low‑cost and low‑complexity SN technologies, organisations can make the most of both.
Keywords: Keywords: e-Learning, Web 2.0, Communities of Practice, Knowledge Management, Intellectual Capital
Impact of Learner's Characteristics and Learning Behaviour on Learning Performance during a Fully Online Course pp395‑409
Abstract: A fully online learning environment requires effective learning management in order to promote pro‑active education. Since students notes are a reflection of the progress of their education, analysis of notes taken can be used to track the lear ning process of students who participate in fully online courses. This paper presents the causal relationships between students characteristics, note‑taking behaviour, learning experience, note assessment and test scores while the relationships between t hese metrics is examined. A fully online course for undergraduate students in Economics was conducted. Participants were asked to study each course module and present their notes to the lecturer every week. The students learning performance was then meas ured using online tests, weekly confirmation tests, and a final exam. The total number of valid participants in the courses was 53. Three factors of note‑taking behaviour were extracted according to the survey, and their relationships with other metrics w ere calculated. A structural equation modeling technique was used to track students learning activity as note‑taking occurred, using the scores of their metrics. The results of this modeling technique suggest that key factors and their contributions to t est scores can be measured. Also, the factors which contribute to note‑taking behaviour were examined.