The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

Exploring the Current Theoretical Background About Adoption Until Institutionalization of Online Education in Universities: Needs for Further Research  pp73-84

Ines Casanovas

© Mar 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEL 2009, Editor: Shirley Williams, Florin Salajan, pp51 - 208

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Abstract

Online education in institutional contexts means new organizational problems. The fact that universities need to change to accommodate the impact of technology on learning is already known and accepted. Coping with changes from adoption until institutionalization of online education represents a formidable management challenge for universities. Online education, under the umbrella of e‑learning was perceived by several early researchers as an innovation per‑se, "established and embedded" in educational institutions. Nevertheless, the Department for Education and Skills of UK insists that e‑learning is not embedded at any stage of education. The focus was strongly set on technological, practical and pedagogical aspects but there are relevant reports about failures in embedding innovations in educational institutions. The institutional lack of strategies to cope with international students and new technologies as well as supporting for future online developments clearly appeared in recent studies. Competition in the market of Higher Education has pushed universities towards the adoption of sophisticated organizational practices to ensure effectiveness. These new institutional models require changing traditional functions and roles, as online education does not usually fit into the existing university structure. The transition from on‑campus to online education evolves in new roles, either in the pedagogical or in the administration domains. Organizational factors, more than teachers and students attitudes or technological features seem to mark the differences in the general perception about technology‑mediated education getting successfully embedded in institutional new programs, roles, procedures, culture and structures. The aim of this paper is to revisit the existing theoretical background about the process from adoption until institutionalization of online education and explore the needs for further research. The overall purpose is to encourage researchers to fill the gaps of knowledge helping university managers to address a more clear understanding of the individual and organizational interactions that influence the development of strategies and institutionalization of emergent online educational initiatives. Exploring the current theoretical background it could be found that IT‑innovation adoption models describe very extensively organizational issues, but they mainly take into account educational innovation take‑up, adoption and implementation as isolated stages. They focus on factors and prescribed practices, but not on the human interactions during the transition from individual adoption until institutionalization. The disconnection between individual and organizational IT adoption research was remarked by the Diffusion Interest Group in Information Technology (DIGIT) in their 2004 conference. Since then, several authors have claimed for a better understanding of this linkage. The lack of clearness about the phenomena and a description of how individual and group‑level processes enable andor hinder the development of organizational routines, were reported as a still under‑developed topic and according to the findings of this review it seems to be still an ongoing theme. Consequently, under the circumstance of the transformation that universities are undergoing, the need for a systematic study analyzing the implementation of emergent IT innovations in education appears as significant. Particularly, the process from its adoption at individual level until its institutionalization and the linkage between individual and organizational purposes need to be addressed.

 

Keywords: online education, adoption, organizational factors, institutionalization, universities

 

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Journal Article

Implementing Blended Learning at a Developing University: Obstacles in the way  pp101-110

Mswazi Tshabalala et al

© Feb 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, ICEL2013, Editor: Dan Remenyi, pp1 - 125

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Abstract

Abstract: Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) are striving to provide effective learning experiences to address the needs of the digitally‑oriented generation of learners. Blended learning has emerged as a solution to address these needs and has been a dopted by various HEIs. However, not all academic staff members adopt blended learning when it is introduced by their institutions. Although this teaching and learning approach offers various advantages to academic staff, negative perceptions held by acad emic staff may affect its adoption.The purpose of this case study was to investigate the perceptions academic staff have about blended learning and to identify challenges facing academic staff that affected the adoption of blended learning in a Faculty of Education at a developing university in South Africa. The study employed the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) developed by Davis (1993) and the Innovation Diffusion Theory (IDT) by Rogers (1983: 246‑250) in a qualitative exploratory research de sign. The investigation made use of focus group interviews with lecturers and individual interviews with heads of academic departments, as well as the dean of the Faculty. Data gathered pointed to various perceptions and practical problems hindering acade mic staff from adopting blended learning. Amongst these were perceptions pertaining to e‑learning or blended learning policy, faculty support by management, computer skills of students and lecturers, as well as inadequate access for students to computers. This research is unique in that it applies known knowledge in the new context of a small South African university, which is a developing community. Lessons learned from this study will make a contribution to knowledge in the field of higher education, an d will help developing universities to benefit from the research.

 

Keywords: Keywords: blended learning, adoption, academic staff, perceptions, challenges, developing university

 

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Journal Article

Differences in Intention to Use Educational RSS Feeds Between Lebanese and British Students: A Multi‑Group Analysis Based on the Technology Acceptance Model  pp14-29

Dr. Ali Tarhini, Dr. Michael James Scott, Dr. Sujeet Kumar Sharma, Dr. Muhammad Sharif Abbasi

© Jan 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Karin Levinsen, pp1 - 56

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Abstract

Abstract: Really Simple Syndication (RSS) offers a means for university students to receive timely updates from virtual learning environments. However, despite its utility, only 21% of home students surveyed at a university in Lebanon claim to have ever used the technology. To investigate whether national culture could be an influence on intention to use RSS, the survey was extended to British students in the UK. Using the Technology Adoption Model (TAM) as a research framework, 437 students responded to a questionnaire containing four constructs: behavioural intention to use; attitude towards benefit; perceived usefulness; and perceived ease of use. Principle components analysis and structural equation modelling were used to explore the psychometric qualities and utility of TAM in both contexts. The results show that adoption was significantly higher, but also modest, in the British context at 36%. Configural and metric invariance were fully supported, while scalar and factorial invariance were parti ally supported. Further analysis shows significant differences between perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use across the two contexts studied. Therefore, it is recommended that faculty demonstrate to students how educational RSS feeds can be used effectively to increase awareness and emphasise usefulness in both contexts.

 

Keywords: Keywords: cross-cultural, technology adoption model, developing countries, RSS, virtual learning environments, engagement

 

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Journal Article

Towards the Acceptance of RSS to Support Learning: An empirical study to validate the Technology Acceptance Model in Lebanon  pp30-41

Dr. Ali Tarhini, Dr. Mohammad Hassouna, Dr. Muhammad Sharif Abbasi, Dr. Jorge Orozco

© Jan 2015 Volume 13 Issue 1, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Karin Levinsen, pp1 - 56

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Abstract

Abstract: Simpler is better. There are a lot of needsŽ in e‑Learning, and theres often a limit to the time, talent, and money that can be thrown at them individually. Contemporary pedagogy in technology and engineering disciplines, within the higher edu cation context, champion instructional designs that emphasize peer instruction and rich formative feedback. However, it can be challenging to maintain student engagement outside the traditional classroom environment and ensure that students receive feedba ck in time to help them with ongoing assignments. The use of virtual learning platforms, such as Blackboard Learn, and web feed syndication, using technology such as Rich Site Summaries (RSS), can help overcome such challenges. However, during an initia l pilot at an institution in Lebanon, only 21% of students reported making use of both these facilities. In this study, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to guide the development of a scale to be used to investigate antecedents to the use o f web feeds. The proposed scale was reviewed by 4 experts and piloted with 235 students. The collected data were analysed using structural equation modeling (SEM) technique based on AMOS methods. The results revealed adequate face, content, and construc t validity. However, perceived ease of use was not a significant predictor of attitude towards use. Overall, the proposed model achieves acceptable fit and explains for 38% of its variance of which is lower than that of the original TAM. This suggests tha t aspects of the model may lack criterion validity in the Lebanese context. Consequently, it may be necessary to extend the scale by capturing additional moderators and predictors, such as cultural values and subjective norms. We concluded that the existe nce of RSS feeds in education improves significantly the content presented by the instructors to the e‑learning user decreasing at the same time the size and access cost.

 

Keywords: keywords: really simple syndication, rss feeds, technology acceptance model, technology adoption, e-learning, structural equation modeling, developing countries, lebanon

 

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Journal Article

Synthesizing Technology Adoption and Learners Approaches Towards Active Learning in Higher Education  pp442-451

Kevin Chan, George Cheung, Kelvin Wan, Ian Brown, Green Luk

© Dec 2015 Volume 13 Issue 6, ICEL 2015, Editor: Pandora Johnson, pp429 - 474

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Abstract

Abstract: In understanding how active and blended learning approaches with learning technologies engagement in undergraduate education, current research models tend to undermine the effect of learners variations, particularly regarding their styles and a pproaches to learning, on intention and use of learning technologies. This study contributes to further examine a working model for learning outcomes in higher education with the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) on SRS adoption attitude, and the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ) on students approach to learning. Adopting a cross‑section observational design, the current study featured an online survey incorporating items UTAUT and SPQ. The survey was administered to 1627 und ergraduate students at a large comprehensive university in Hong Kong. Relationships between SRS adoption attitude, learning approaches, and learning outcomes in higher‑order thinking & learning and collaborative learning were analyzed with a structural eq uation model (SEM). A total of 3 latent factors, including four factors from UTAUT in Performance Expectancy, Effort Expectancy, and Deep Learning Approach from the SPQ, were identified in the structural model on students intention to adopt SRS in clas ses. Current results suggested that a model of active learning outcomes comprising both UTAUT constructs and deep learning approach. Model presented in the present study supported the UTAUT in predicting both behavioral intention and in adopting SRS in la rge classes of undergraduate education. Specifically, positive attitudes towards SRS use measured with the UTAUT, via a learning approach towards deep learning, accounted for variation on high‑impact learning including higher‑order thinking and collaborat ive learning. Results demonstrated that the process of technology adoption should be conceptualized in conjunction with learners diversity for explaining variation in adoption of technologies in the higher education context.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Technology adoption, Learning Approaches, Students Response System, SRS, Higher Education

 

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Journal Article

A Case Study on the Adoption and use of Synchronous Virtual Classrooms  pp124-138

Florence Martin, Michele Parker, Beth Allred Oyarzun

© Jun 2013 Volume 11 Issue 2, Editor: Roy Williams, pp80 - 167

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Abstract

This is a case study of faculty adoption and use of Horizon Wimba Virtual Classroom in online courses at a Southeastern University in the United States.. The purpose of this case study was to explore faculty adoption and use of Horizon Wimba in their online courses. This inquiry is based on Yen et al. (2010) adoption factors (organizational, social, personal and technological) and the features of the virtual classroom. The research questions are 1) What factors and features influence faculty adoption of the Wimba Virtual Classroom? 2) How do faculty rate the Wimba Virtual Classroom using the characteristics of innovation? 3) How do faculty classify themselves using Roger’s model of diffusion of innovation? 4) How do faculty use the Wimba Virtual Classroom in their teaching? Roger’s diffusion of innovation was used as the theoretical framework for faculty adoption of virtual classroom. In the Fall of 2010, faculty were surveyed and interviewed about their decision to adopt and use Wimba. This case study provides meaningful information for administrators interested in promoting technology enhanced learning on their campuses and for faculty considering adoption.

 

Keywords: virtual classroom, synchronous, online learning, technology adoption

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 11 Issue 2 / Jun 2013  pp80‑167

Editor: Roy Williams

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Keywords: online learning; professional development; perceived usefulness of technology; perceived ease of use of technology; online qualifications, pre-service teacher education; secondary school teachers; technology uses in education; teaching methods, weblogs, blogs, e-learning; online assessment; adaptive assessment; learning management systems; web-based systems; ancient Greek literature; Greek lyric poetry, action research, reflective practitioner, social networking technologies, continuous professional development, virtual classroom, synchronous, online learning, technology adoption, e-cheating, turnitin.com, writecheck.com, plagiarism, face-to-face, online, virtual worlds, LMS, sloodle

 

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