The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

'I am not a Person with a Creative Mind': Facilitating Creativity in the Undergraduate Curriculum Through a Design‑Based Research Approach  pp111-125

Denise Wood, Carolyn Bilsborow

© Feb 2014 Volume 12 Issue 1, ICEL2013, Editor: Dan Remenyi, pp1 - 125

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Abstract

Abstract: Today's graduates need the skills to enable them to 'persevere in the face of complexity and unresolvability' (McWilliam and Haukka 2008: 660), and to respond creatively in work environments that are increasingly dependent on digital technolog ies (Cunningham 2006). However, although many higher education institutions (HEIs) acknowledge the importance of creativity within the curriculum (McWilliam 2007a), it is argued that universities are failing to equip graduates with the creative skil ls they require to be effective in the workplace. Design‑based learning (also referred to as learning by design) is ideally suited to facilitating the development of creative problem solving (CPS) skills by engaging students in complex learning activi ties involving the active construction of knowledge through a series of iterative cycles of experimentation and refinement of concepts (Naidu 2004). Similarly, design‑based research (DBR) involves a series of iterative steps to design and develop lear ning environments and theories the design, while also informing the development of practical guidelines (Reeves, Herrington and Oliver, 2005). This paper reports on findings from a project funded by the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teac hing, which aimed to develop a CPS framework and supporting online system to scaffold teachers and students through a creative problem solving approach founded on the principles of DBR. The study employed a mixed‑methods DBR approach involving multiple it erations to design, develop, trial and implement the framework and tool, as well as the development of principles and practical guidelines for application in the classroom. The findings reported in this paper focus on the DBR process and the experience tr ialling the CPS tool in a first‑year undergraduate course offered in the School of Communication, International Studies and Languages at the University of South Australia. The paper reports on the implications of the findings from the project and the bene fits of DBR as a methodology informing the design, development

 

Keywords: Keywords: Creativity, Creative Problem Solving, Design-Based Research, Higher Education, Graduate Attributes, Generic Skills

 

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Journal Article

Copycat or Creative Innovator? Reproduction as a Pedagogical Strategy in Schools  pp83-93

Stine Ejsing-Duun, Helle Marie Skovbjerg

© Jan 2016 Volume 14 Issue 2, ECGBL 2015, Editor: Robin Munkvold, pp81 - 149

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Abstract

Abstract: This article explores how student behaviour and interactions change when teachers use producing as a primary pedagogical strategy (Papert, 1980; Ejsing‑Duun and Karoff, 2014). Based on observed student and teacher actions and responses, as w ell as students production, this paper emphasizes the importance of understanding how students explore creativity and playfulness while producing in learning situations. This paper is based on a large research project called Children as Learning Designe rs in a Digital School (2013…2015), funded by Denmarks Ministry of Education, which included fieldwork in five Danish public schools, involved about 500 students, and comprised six interventions in the first, second, fifth, sixth, and tenth grades. Th e projects empirical data consist of observations, participatory observation, and productions students created during the interventions. This paper presents an analysis of how students were creative and playful while producing learning material as games during three of the projects interventions. The study is based on a specific understanding of the creativity with a point of departure (Boden, 2004; Tanggaard and Wegener, 2015) and playfulness (Karoff, 2013) that occur in learning situations. We app roach creativity and playfulness as new methods of learning, through six areas of change that inform [ƒ]how todays kids play and learn, and, more generally, how they see themselves, relate to others, dwell in place, and treat things (Ackermann, 2013: 119). This paper investigates how educators handle childrens productive processes in a school setting and how teachers can conceptualize and nurture play and creativity as drivers for learning. In this context, the importance of skills and acknowledgeme nt of reproducing and re‑mixing existing materials is discussed. We further argue that playfulness is necessary for creativity to occur. From this point of view, it is possible to understand how learning activities can support creativity„an essential twen ty‑first century skill (Levinsen and Sørensen, 2015).

 

Keywords: Keywords:, re-, production, creativity, innovation, playing, learning, games

 

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Journal Article

Co‑Creativity through Play and Game Design Thinking  pp184-198

Sylvester Arnab, Samantha Clarke, Luca Morini

© Sep 2019 Volume 17 Issue 3, Editor: Melanie Ciussi and Margarida Romero, pp173 - 235

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Abstract

This article discusses the application of game design thinking as a learning process for scaffolding co‑creativity in Higher Education based on the GameChangers initiative (gamify.org.uk) part‑funded by the Higher Education Funding Council of England (HEFCE). Taking into account the relationship between play, technology and learning, the game design thinking approach fully embraces and accommodates for the creation and development of games of any typology (board games, card games, digital games, etc.) and playful solutions (gamified products) as freely chosen by the learners, aligning with the importance of autonomy, relatedness and purpose in motivating learners to be deeply engaged in the process. Through this process, learners are expected to gain valuable knowledge in creative and collaborative problem solving and experience game design and development process towards addressing real challenges and opportunities in their communities. The focus of the process is on the creative process rather than the end products/solutions produced by the learners. The paper will specifically discuss the methodology and findings from an experimental module developed based on the approach involving four cohorts of Level two undergraduate students (n=122, 2017‑2019). The students came from the different schools and faculties at Coventry University, UK. Based on the qualitative feedback and reflections collected through the Module Evaluation Questionnaire (MEQ) and the final reflection pieces, the co‑creative process inspired by play and games demonstrates that through the process, students discover the importance of elements such as empathy, purpose, meaning, art, creativity and teamwork in their learning regardless of the specific disciplines they are pursuing.

 

Keywords: co-creativity, playful learning, game-based learning, game design, higher education

 

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Journal Article

Assessment of Co‑Creativity in the Process of Game Design  pp199-206

Margarida Romero, Sylvester Arnab, Cindy De Smet, Fitri Mohamad, Jacey-Lynn Minoi, L. Morini

© Sep 2019 Volume 17 Issue 3, Editor: Melanie Ciussi and Margarida Romero, pp173 - 235

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Abstract

We consider game design as a sociocultural and knowledge modelling activity, engaging participants in the design of a scenario and a game universe based on a real or imaginary socio‑historical context, where characters can introduce life narratives and interaction that display either known social realities or entirely new ones. In this research, participants of the co‑creation activity are Malaysian students who were working in groups to design game‑based learning resources for rural school children. After the co‑creativity activity, the students were invited to answer the co‑creativity scale, an adapted version of the Assessment Scale of Creative Collaboration (ASCC), combining both the co‑creativity factors and learners’ experiences on their interests, and difficulties they faced during the co‑creativity process. The preliminary results showed a high diversity on the participants’ attitudes towards collaboration, especially related to their preferences towards individual or collaborative work.

 

Keywords: game-based learning, game design, creativity, co-creativity process, collaboration

 

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Journal Article

Building Creative Critical Online Learning Communities through Digital Moments  pp387-396

Wendy Barber

© Oct 2020 Volume 18 Issue 5, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen, Mie Buhl and Bente Meyer, pp373 - 420

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Abstract

This paper is a mixed methods case study measuring student perceptions of a pedagogical strategy called “Digital Moments” (DM) for developing creative interactive online learning communities. The theoretical framework within which this resides is the Fully Online Learning Community (FOLC) model (vanOostveen et al, 2016), based on a foundation of problem‑based learning, cognitive and social presence, and learner‑centred pedagogies.The article reviews a specific teaching strategy for increasing social presence and student engagement through the use of creative and artistic expression in problem‑based learning spaces. Using “Digital Moments” as a way to build inclusion in two synchronous graduate online courses, the author describes how the teaching strategy increased student participation, developed student ownership of learning, and encouraged collaborative processes between participants. This teaching strategy makes a significant contribution to digital pedagogy. Although the growth of online learning is quite substantial, our ability to develop online communities that inspire critical and creative thinking has not kept pace. Traditional teacher‑centred learning environments do not meet the needs of students in today’s Fourth Industrial Revolution. As such, the FOLC model provides an online learning community model that removes traditional teacher‑learner roles, allows the instructor to act as a facilitator and challenges learners to co‑design and co‑create the learning process. Within this digital space, collaborative disruption is encouraged, and, in fact necessary for the types of critical and creative thinking to emerge that are central to the FOLC model. Digital Moments, is one example of a pedagogical strategy that enables learners to co‑create and own the digital learning space, within a fully online learning community.

 

Keywords: Critical thinking, creativity, online learning, communities, disruption

 

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Journal Article

Learning via Game Design: From Digital to Card Games and Back Again  pp167-180

Emanuela Marchetti, Andrea Valente

© Mar 2015 Volume 13 Issue 3, ECGBL 2014, Editor: Busch-Steinicke, pp149 - 206

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Abstract

Abstract: In this paper we consider the problem of making design of digital games accessible to primary school children and their teachers, and we argue for the need of digital games that are easy to alter by young learners. We know from previous research projects that digital games do not enable children to express their creativity at full, in contrast with low‑fidelity prototypes and non‑digital toys (such as card or table top games). Therefore, we propose here a novel approach that serves as a middle ground between digital and traditional table top games, and grants children more freedom to express themselves, articulate their understanding and difficulties both individually and socially. This approach, called card‑based model for digital game design , is an alternative to the current trend of associating programming with digital creativity. A preliminary study was conducted by transposing a digital game into a trading card game, to investigate the potential of the approach: as expected, students part icipating to the study shifted between playing and design thinking. The card‑based model introduced in this paper works full circle: it enables learners to go from digital games to cards and back. In fact, the card‑centric game architecture that resulted from the study allows a digital game to be reified as trading card‑game, so that learners can re‑design and digitize it to obtain a new a digital game, without programming. The next step is to involve primary schools in more complete evaluations of our ne w game development approach.

 

Keywords: Keywords: Learning, game design, card games, playful play, knowledge transposition, group creativity

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 17 Issue 3 / Sep 2019  pp173‑235

Editor: Melanie Ciussi, Margarida Romero

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Keywords: play-to-engage, participatory co-creation, indigenous community engagement, culture, co-creativity, playful learning, game-based learning, game design, higher education, game-based learning, game design, creativity, co-creativity process, collaboration, serious games, educational games, instructional design, game design, gameplay loop, player-centered design, community-driven research, urban development, citizen science

 

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