The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

Evaluating Online Dialogue on "Security" Using a Novel Instructional Design  pp1-10

Payal Arora

© Apr 2008 Volume 6 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 75

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Abstract

This paper explores evaluation strategies to gauge the impact of a novel instructional design on international community participation online. This is done by conceptualizing and devising indicators for measuring "engagement" online amongst marginalized adult communities worldwide. In doing so, a review of online evaluation literature is conducted. In comparing dialogue sessions based on an ongoing traditional model to the new instructional approach, various challenges are faced in "measuring" asynchronous discussion. While the initial findings of marginal increase in engagement with the adapted instructional approach is not sufficient to prove that the new model works, this paper demonstrates various strategies challenges in evaluating dialectic engagement.

 

Keywords: online evaluation, instructional design, community participation, international, marginalized, engagement

 

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Journal Article

When Knowing More Means Knowing Less: Understanding the Impact of Computer Experience on e‑Learning and e‑Learning Outcomes  pp289-300

Lena Paulo Kushnir

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3, Special ICEL 2009 Issue, Editor: Florin Salajan and Avi Hyman, pp191 - 316

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Abstract

Students often report feeling more overloaded in courses that use e‑learning environments compared to traditional face‑to‑face courses that do not use such environments. Discussions here consider online design and organizational factors that might contribute to students' reports of information overload. It was predicted that certain online factors might contribute to stimulus overload and possibly students' perceived overload, rather than information overload per se. User characteristics and a range of design and organizational factors that might contribute to perceived overload are discussed and hypotheses of how such factors might affect learning outcomes are also discussed. An experiment was conducted to test predictions that (i) students' past online experience, (ii) the organization and relevance of online information, and (iii) the level of task difficulty affect (i) learning outcomes, (ii) students' perceptions of information overload, and (iii) students' perceptions of having enough time to complete experimental tasks. A total of 187 participants were tested in four experimental conditions that manipulated the organization and relevance of online material that students had to learn (ie, (i) a stimulus‑low environment, where the material to be learned was presented as scrolling text, with no other stimuli present; (ii) a familiar environment, where the material to be learned was set within the borders of a familiar course Web site; (iii) a stimulus‑rich or stimulus‑ noisy environment, where the material to be learned was set within the borders of an Amazon.com Web page (a Web site where you can search for, and buy books, videos and other products online); (iv) a PDF file environment, where the material to be learned was presented as a PDF file that resembled an online duplicate of the same material in the course textbook). Findings suggested that overly busy online environments that contain irrelevant information (ie, stimulus‑rich or stimulus‑noisy online environment) had a negative impact on learning for students ranked "high" on experience with e‑learning technologies, but no impact on learning for other students (as measured by a knowledge test of material studied during experimental sessions). There is no doubt that online environments contain vast amounts of information and stimuli; often some of which are irrelevant and distracting. How one handles irrelevant or distracting information and stimuli can have a significant impact on learning. Surprisingly, results here suggest that overload affected only experienced students. Perceptual load hypotheses are discussed to explain what initially seemed to be counterintuitive results. This paper examines literature that considers factors that can affect learning online, strategies for how teachers can ensure positive outcomes for the technology‑based classroom, and strategies for avoiding online pitfalls that might leave students frustrated or burdened with feelings of overload.

 

Keywords: learning outcomes overload perceptual load design and organizational factors of e-learning interface design instructional design user experience task difficulty

 

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Journal Article

The Effects of Instructor Control of Online Learning Environments on Satisfaction and Perceived Learning  pp169-180

Jamie Costley, Christopher Lange

© Jul 2016 Volume 14 Issue 3, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Karin Levinsen, pp150 - 232

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Abstract

Abstract: Instructional design is important as it helps set the discourse, context, and content of learning in an online environment. Specific instructional design decisions do not only play a part in the discourse of the learners, but they can affect the learners levels of satisfaction and perceived learning as well. Numerous studies have shown the value that both student satisfaction and learning have on learner achievement. For this reason, the question of whether instructors can impact satisfaction a nd perceived learning through various instructional design decisions is important. This study looked at broad‑based instructor decisions to see if online environments with higher levels of instructor control lead to higher levels of student satisfaction a nd/or perceived learning. Three different online environments were used, with each one containing progressively more instructor control. The results show that there were no significant differences in regards to mean levels of satisfaction between the thre e environments. However, there were significant differences among mean levels of perceived learning based on the differing instructor‑controlled environments. This study shows that increasing the levels of instructor control within online environments lea ds to an increase in perceived learning.

 

Keywords: Keywords: computer mediated communication, instructor control, instructional design, online learning, perceived learning, satisfaction

 

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Journal Article

The Mediating Effects of Germane Cognitive Load on the Relationship Between Instructional Design and Students’ Future Behavioral Intention  pp174-187

Jamie Costley, Christopher Lange

© May 2017 Volume 15 Issue 2, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Karin Levinsen, pp105 - 198

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Abstract

Instructional design is an important aspect of the learning experience within formal online courses. One way in which online instructional design may benefit students is by increasing their future behavioral intention to use educational materials. This is important because research has revealed that students’ use of educational resources is strongly connected with academic success. Additionally, higher quality instructional design will increase students’ levels of germane cognitive load, which is a powerful indicator of learning. This study surveyed a group of students (n = 1314) who participated in formal online classes in South Korea to investigate the relationships between instructional design and germane load, germane load and future behavioral intention, as well as instructional design and future behavioral intention. Results showed positive correlation among each of these relationships. Furthermore, a mediation model was used, and results showed that germane load completely mediates the relationship between instructional design and future behavioral intention. These relationships are examined to better understand learning and future behavioral intention in relation to instructional design within online learning environments.

 

Keywords: behavioral intention, cognitive load, germane load, e-learning, instructional design, MOOC

 

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Journal Article

The Gameplay Loop Methodology as a Tool for Educational Game Design  pp207-221

André Czauderna, Emmanuel Guardiola

© Sep 2019 Volume 17 Issue 3, Editor: Melanie Ciussi and Margarida Romero, pp173 - 235

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Abstract

The field of game design for educational content lacks a focus on methodologies that merge gameplay and learning. Existing methodologies typically fall short in three ways: they neglect the unfolding of gameplay through players’ actions over a short period of time as a significant unit of analysis; they lack a common consideration of game and learning mechanics; and they falsely separate the acts of playing and learning. This paper recommends the gameplay loop methodology as a valuable tool for educational game design, as it addresses these major shortcomings. Furthermore, this paper outlines how this methodology can be supported by knowledge from subject‑specific didactics—considering both the curriculum and its mediation (contributed by experts from educational practice) as well as methods of player‑centered design—in order to ensure the appropriateness of learning objectives and techniques of mediation in the context of a particular field of knowledge, the game’s appeal to its target group, and the effectiveness of the learning mechanics. A case study of the design and production phases of Antura and the Letters, a literacy game for Arabic refugee children, illustrates the uses of the gameplay loop methodology situated in the described broader approach to educational game design. Finally, this paper explains the results of an impact study revealing that the approach indeed provides the opportunity to merge playing and learning.

 

Keywords: serious games, educational games, instructional design, game design, gameplay loop, player-centered design

 

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Journal Article

Teaching and Instructional Design Approaches to Enhance Students’ Self‑Directed Learning in Blended Learning Environments  pp162-174

Dina Adinda, Najoua Mohib

© Feb 2020 Volume 18 Issue 2, Editor: Heinrich Söbke and Marija Cubric, pp114 - 206

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Abstract

Thanks to the combination of face‑to‑face and online learning which involve the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), blended learning has become a popular approach to support learning in higher education. The main purpose of this study is to identify the teaching and instructional design approaches adopted by lecturers within blended learning environments, and to analyse their effects on students’ self‑directed learning. The sample involves 18 lecturers and their undergraduate students (n= 294) undertaking a blended course in one French university. This research utilised a mixed method approach for data collection, including questionnaires and observations. Firstly, lecturers were invited to declare their teaching approaches and the configuration of their blended learning environments by completing two online questionnaires. Secondly, both face‑to‑face and online observations were conducted with the lecturers to identify the specificity of their instructional design activities. A pre‑post questionnaire was also used to measure students’ self‑directed learning level. Data collection took place over a period of 6 months during the academic year 2017‑2018. The results show that lecturers who adopt student‑centred teaching approaches are not necessarily designing their blended learning courses as a student‑centred learning environment. Also, the results reveal that students' self‑directed learning is significantly developed only in three out of seven student‑centred blended learning courses. Additionally, the results show that lecturers of the students who improved their self‑directed level provided online peer review and online forum discussion activities. The findings indicate that further research is needed both to validate the direct relationship between these kinds of pedagogical activities and the self‑directed learning, and to determine how blended learning environments can better support collaboration and interaction.

 

Keywords: Blended learning, teaching approaches, instructional design, self-directed learning, undergraduate students, online discussion forum

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 6 Issue 1 / Mar 2008  pp1‑75

Editor: Shirley Williams

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Editorial

A new issue of EJEL brings seven interesting pieces of research from different countries around the world. The learners involved in these researches range from school children to mature postgraduate students; they are of a variety of nationalities, they have differing previous experience and are of both genders. The learners have different modes of working; on‑campus or at a distance, and the educators have a variety of approaches and strategies to meet the difficulties their learners face. Reading these papers gives an insight to the challenges that the e‑Learning community faces. Overwhelmingly I am left with the view that there is no one‑size‑fits‑all in e‑Learning; we must be prepared to consider the individual if e‑Learning is to succeed.

 

Keywords: Asynchronous, community participation, construction technique, culture, curriculum development, distance learning, diversity, e-learning, engagement, evaluation, flexible learning, Greece, higher education, ICT, information and communication technology, instructional design, instructivism, international, LMS, Marginalized, online courses, online evaluation, online learning, participation, pedagogical development., postgraduate studies, quality assessment, secondary, socio-constructivism, study guide, test, time-management, virtual classroom, widening participation

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 6 Issue 2 / Apr 2008  pp99‑182

Editor: Shirley Williams

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Keywords: Asynchronous, community participation, construction technique, culture, curriculum development, distance learning, diversity, e-learning, engagement, evaluation, flexible learning, Greece, higher education, ICT, information and communication technology, instructional design, instructivism, international, LMS, Marginalized, online courses, online evaluation, online learning, participation, pedagogical development., postgraduate studies, quality assessment, secondary, socio-constructivism, study guide, test, time-management, virtual classroom, widening participation

 

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