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Journal Article

Teaching Aids and Work With Models in e‑Learning Environments  pp244-258

Kateřina Jančaříková, Antonín Jančařík

© Jun 2017 Volume 15 Issue 3, Editor: Jarmila Novotná and Antonín Jančařík, pp199 - 280

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PISA study has defined several key areas to be paid attention to by teachers. One of these areas is work with models. The term model can be understood very broadly, it can refer to a drawing of a chemical reaction, a plastic model, a permanent mount (taxidermy) to advanced 3D projections. Teachers are no longer confined to teaching materials and aids available physically at schools. Thanks to information technology, models can be included in lessons almost without any limits. However, work with models is very specific due to the simple fact that a model always differs from what it represents. Efficiency of education using ICT can be affected negatively in case that work with complex models requires high level of abstraction which pupils are not capable of (Harrison and Treagust, 2000). Jančaříková (2015) points out that – due to the demands on upper secondary pupils – children must be taught how to relate models to real objects from very early stages. Linking an object to its model – isomorphism is the basis for successful work with models. Work with models thus must be developed systematically and consistently and included into teaching of younger learners. The scope of work with models in natural sciences is gradually increasing. However, the fact that we are able to project models to pupils using information technology does not mean that pupils will be able to understand them. In this paper we want to point out that not enough attention is paid to work with models (not only in the Czech Republic) – methodology of work with models does not exist and is not taught to pre‑service teachers. The paper classifies types of models we come across in lessons, describes basic differences between objects and reality they represent and proposes possible ways of systematic inclusion of models into teaching.


Keywords: models, projection, science education, 3D projections, interactive models, science education, biology


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Journal Issue

Volume 15 Issue 3 / Jun 2017  pp199‑280

Editor: Jarmila Novotná, Antonín Jančařík

View Contents Download PDF (free)



Keywords: Note-taking, reflection, self-efficacy, student's characteristics, correlation analysis, causal analysis, e-advising, reflection, reflective practitioners, trust, competency, Inquiry Based Learning, GIS education, spatial analysis, Blended Learning, Textbooks, electronic online materials, word problems, non-mathematical content, subversiveness, realia, stereotypes, construction of social reality, culture reproduction, models, projection, science education, 3D projections, interactive models, science education, biology, teacher technological pedagogical knowledge, 21st-century skills, low-technology context, teacher transition to e-learning, technology integration, professional networks, Tunisia


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