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Journal Article

The Effectiveness of E‑Learning: An Explorative and Integrative Review of the Definitions, Methodologies and Factors that Promote e‑Learning Effectiveness  pp277-289

Signe Schack Noesgaard, Rikke Ørngreen

© Apr 2015 Volume 13 Issue 4, ECEL 2014, Editor: Kim Long, pp205 - 315

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Abstract A structured search of library databases revealed that research examining the effectiveness of e‑Learning has heavily increased within the last five years. After taking a closer look at the search results, the authors discovered that previous res earchers defined and investigated effectiveness in multiple ways. At the same time, learning and development professionals within public and private organisations are increasingly being asked to prove the effectiveness of their learning and development in itiatives. This paper investigates the effectiveness of e‑Learning through an integrative review, which ). The paper answers the following research questions: How is the effectiveness of e‑Learning defined? How is the effectiveness of e‑Learning measured ? What makes e‑Learning solutions effective? The authors discovered 19 distinct ways to define effectiveness, the most common of which is â learning outcome⠒, appearing in 41 % of the articles examined in the literature review. Moreover, the most commo n way to measure effectiveness is quantitatively with pre‑ and post‑tests. This paper includes an empirical study of an e‑Learning solution for science teachers (K⠍12) which serves as a valuable addition to the findings of the literature study. The st udy suggests that it is difficult to use e‑Learning to improve teaching performance, as participating teachers can apply several strategies to avoid substantially changing their work‑related practices. Furthermore, the study shows that only using the fulf ilment of pre‑defined learning objectives as an effectiveness parameter does not allow developers and researchers to see unexpected and unintended changes in practice that occur as a result of the e‑Learning program. Finally, the research provides insight into the validity of self‑assessments, suggesting that participants are able to successfully report their own practices, provided certain qualitative survey approaches are used. In this paper, a model for understanding the relationships of the key factor s that influence effectiveness is developed. Th


Keywords: Keywords: effectiveness, e-Learning, adult learning, literature study, definition, measurement


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