The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

ICT and Schools: Identification of Factors Influencing the use of new Media in Vocational Training Schools  pp96-103

Alexandra Totter, Daniela Stütz, Gudela Grote

© Feb 2006 Volume 4 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 111

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Abstract

In this paper, we analysed teachers' characteristics described in the literature on classroom media use to identify those factors, which can explain teachers' use of new media in classrooms with some degree of validity. Using this literature as a basis, in this paper we develop a theoretical model which describes both positive and negative factors, which influence teachers' use of new media in classrooms. These factors include: "constructivist teaching style", "willingness to cooperate", "openness to change", "lack of ICT‑competence", "lack of time" and "lack of ICT confidence". We assessed the validity of the model by testing it using data collected from a survey of fifty‑two Swiss and Austrian teachers, We carried out Pearson correlations to evaluate whether the factors in the model had a positive or a negative influence on teachers' classroom media use. The hypothesized correlations between our variables were all statistically significant. Specifically, all six variables were significantly correlated with the dependent variable "use of new media in classrooms". This result supported our hypothesis concerning positive and negative relationships between variables. In a second, exploratory investigation, we performed OLS regression analysis to investigate, which of the factors in our model are of predictive value with respect to the dependent variable "use of new media in classrooms". Our findings show that the variable "constructivist teaching style" was of particular explanatory value. This suggests that only teachers who adopt a pupil‑oriented, constructivist teaching style are likely to make use of new technology in classrooms. The variable "lack of available time" was identified as a second important factor influencing the "use of new media in classrooms". This suggests that teachers are not able to make full use of new media when they lack the time needed to prepare teaching material using the new media, since time is also needed for teachers to learn new hardware and software computer skills. The results of this study have a series of important, practical implications.

 

Keywords: Media use, Classroom, and teachers' characteristics, Predicting factors

 

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Journal Article

Building the Future Students' Blended Learning Experiences from Current Research Findings  pp133-140

Amanda Jefferies, Ruth Hyde

© Mar 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEL 2009, Editor: Shirley Williams, Florin Salajan, pp51 - 208

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Abstract

Between March 2007 and February 2009, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) funded a Learners Journeys project at the University of Hertfordshire. This was part of their second phase of investment in research into the Learners' Experiences through their E‑Learning Programme and was known as LXP2. STROLL (STudent Reflections On Lifelong e‑Learning), as the Learners' Journeys project was known, researched into the experiences of current undergraduate students in Higher Education (HE) and Further Education (FE) primarily through a series of diaries constructed by student volunteers. Using video and audio recording to capture students' own reflections on their learning and their use of technology over the 2 year period the project data has offered many reflections from students on their use of technology for both learning and leisure. Building on this and other recent research data, the authors now suggest that for many HE students, technology has become a ubiquitous part of their lives to the extent that they may own or access regularly multiple items of personal technology that are used interchangeably for learning and leisure, including their computers and their mp3 players. At the University of Hertfordshire access to technology enhanced learning has included use of the managed learning environment (MLE) which is called StudyNet. This MLE has been highly praised by the campus‑based undergraduates and especially those participating in STROLL for making their learning accessible wherever and whenever they want to access it. In this paper we explore how academics might learn from the experience of these current students and their reflections on becoming effective learners supported by technology. This research indicates that technology can be a vital support for students in their complex balancing act between their busy studying, working and personal lives and the students have enthusiastically reported that technology is a key enabler for them. This paper presents the ways in which students use technology in HE and raises the questions of how institutions might support some of the diverse needs of future students.

 

Keywords: student experience, blended learning, technology use, reflection

 

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Journal Article

Exploring Students use of ICT and Expectations of Learning Methods  pp13-20

Allison Littlejohn, Anoush Margaryan, Gabriele Vojt

© Jan 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 50

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Abstract

This study investigates changing patterns in students use of electronic tools over a four year period, mapping changes in social communications with expectations in formal learning. The data, collected from 2001 to 2004, reflect the views of 2215 university entrants, the majority of whom were aged between 17 and 20 years across a range of disciplines (Business, Science and Engineering) on their first day at university. Although the data was collected prior to the emergence of the contemporary social technologies, it tests an underlying assertion that students expectations of learning are strongly influenced by their prior experiences. Results show no correlation between the extent of university entrants use of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) and their expectations of how they will learn. Despite a dramatic increase in students use of ubiquitous technologies over a four‑year period, their expectation of how they might learn at university remained relatively static over the same timeframe.

 

Keywords: ICT use, digital literacy, technology-enhanced learning, e-learning, students expectations of technology use, higher education

 

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Journal Article

Review of Use of Animation as a Supplementary Learning Material of Physiology Content in Four Academic Years  pp368-377

Isabel Hwang, Michael Tam, Shun Leung Lam, Paul Lam

© Oct 2012 Volume 10 Issue 4, ICEL 2012, Editor: Paul Lam, pp360 - 440

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Abstract

Dynamic concepts are difficult to explain in traditional media such as still slides. Animations seem to offer the advantage of delivering better representations of these concepts. Compared with static images and text, animations can present procedural information (e.g. biochemical reaction steps, physiological activities) more explicitly as they show the steps in an orderly manner. Quite a few empirical studies showed promising results animations have on learning (e.g. Trevisan, Oki and Senger, 2009; Hays, 1996). There are, however, also limitations. Designing and developing quality animations for teaching and learning can be challenging sometimes (Morrison, Tversky and Betrancourt, 2000). Kesner and Linzey (2005) even found no improvement on students’ learning in using animations in their study. It thus occurs to the researchers that there are factors that govern successful use of animation in teaching and learning. Our study explored such factors in the context of physiology teaching. 913 students in twelve different classes (collected in two stages, four years in total) in the same physiology course learned complicated microscopic mechanisms with assistance from animations provided as supplementary materials primarily for self‑study. Surveys and group interviews were conducted that provided both qualitative and quantitative feedback. Results were mostly positive ‑ animations surely explain contents more explicitly to students (especially for the explanation of dynamic and complicated biological processes), make students more interested in the subjects taught; and there is a greater demand for similar learning tools from the students. It is strongly believed that animations are good supplementary learning materials for students particularly for learning complicated concepts. Important success factors we found included the detailed explanation of content, a good balance between clear presentation and beautiful interface, the speed of running/ loading of the animations, and the provision of more references, etc.

 

Keywords: dynamic physiology process, supplementary use of animation, advantage of animation in teaching, successful factors of using animation, animation for student revision, learning with animation

 

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Journal Article

Exploring the Acceptability of Online Learning for Continuous Professional Development at Kenya Medical Training Colleges  pp82-90

Isaac William Kyalo, Sandra Hopkins

© Jun 2013 Volume 11 Issue 2, Editor: Roy Williams, pp80 - 167

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Abstract

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Keywords: online learning, professional development, perceived usefulness of technology, perceived ease of use of technology, online qualifications

 

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Journal Article

A Continuum of Teachers’ e‑Learning Practices  pp396-409

Osman Sadeck, Johannes Cronjé

© Oct 2017 Volume 15 Issue 5, Editor: Rikke Ørngreen and Karin Levinsen, pp367 - 466

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Abstract

The introduction of technologies into the teaching and learning environment has implied changes to the way education plays out in an e‑Environment. Previous research has highlighted the many barriers and challenges in integration technology into teaching and learning. Technology is said to be underutilised. However there are studies that have identified that teachers are using technology in their work. Little is known about the extent of this use of technology. Accordingly less is known about teachers’ e‑Learning practices. This paper seeks to highlight the patterns in teachers’ e‑Learning practices. Using a blend of inductive and deductive techniques data was collected from a sample of teachers known to be using technology in their work. The study was framed by the: (i) Development in use and stages of teaching and learning with technologies (UNESCO) and (ii) Technological skills developmental levels (DoE). The data from the study has highlighted patterns in the use and practice of technology integration in school education. These patterns could be mapped to continuums of use and practice. It has been found that teachers used technology for a variety of purposes: personal, administration, teaching and learning at different frequencies and at varying levels of intensity. Teachers were found to use technology for e‑Teaching and e‑Learning progressively and in ways that was aligned to their comfort zones. The way teachers’ used technology was found to be progressive from simple to innovative.

 

Keywords: e-Learning practice, continuum, use, e-Teaching, e-Learning, traditional, innovation

 

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Journal Article

Watch out — the Power Users are Coming  pp79-86

Karin Tweddell Levinsen

© May 2007 Volume 5 Issue 1, ECEL 2006, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 86

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Abstract

This paper analyses and discusses the future challenges that tertiary educational institutions may expect to face when the traditional organisational forms and norms of the industrial society meet the first generation of natural born ICT using students who have lived their whole life with ICT and the ever changing norms and demands of the unfolding information society. In order to analyse the premise for these challenges the paper applies a long‑term perspective on the generations and organisations affected by the transmission. A key to gain insight to the future students and the nature of the encounter is research aimed at the present primary school. Additionally a key to the organisational perspective is identification of organisations' readiness for change and the potential barriers for adaptation to the information society and the ´ power users´. Based on the analysis, the paper comprises an outline of institutional obstacles inhibiting a successful encounter and argues the necessity of integrating top‑down and bottom‑up initiatives in future organisations. Thus, the process of change demands awareness and support from both the authorities empowered to make grants and from the management of the educational organisations, and the paper explicitly focuses on collaborating teaching staffs as a tool for improving both individual and organisational adaptability.

 

Keywords: ICT, Power users, game generation, university pedagogy, collaborative teaching staff, adaptability to change, information society

 

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Journal Article

A Novel Approach to Define Performance Metrics for Students' and Teachers' Evaluation  pp87-102

Pradipta Biswas, S.K. Ghosh

© Aug 2007 Volume 5 Issue 2, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp87 - 173

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Abstract

Evaluation is an unavoidable feature in any teaching or learning scenario. The evaluation strategy of students differs widely throughout the world. Further, most of the institutes do not use any objective technique to assess the teaching performance of a teacher. The present paper defines performance metrics both for student and teacher evaluation and also discusses the methodology for calculating relevant metrics. In a decision‑making scenario, these metrics may help in providing enough insight into the assimilation capability of students and teaching capability of teachers. Once measured properly for an adequate length of time, these metrics can also be customised to provide other useful information like utility of a course modification, institutional performance etc. The system has been tested for analysing four courses in a premier engineering institute and the outcome found to be encouraging.

 

Keywords: education technology, evaluation system data warehouse, performance metric, ontology

 

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