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Journal Article

Towards a Fusion of Formal and Informal Learning Environments: the Impact of the ReadWrite Web  pp29-40

Richard Hall

© May 2009 Volume 7 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 85

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Abstract

The readwrite web, or Web 2.0, offers ways for users to personalise their online existence, and to develop their own critical identities though their control of a range of tools. Exerting control enables those users to forge new contexts, profiles and content through which to represent themselves, based upon the user‑centred, participative, social networking affordances of specific technologies. In turn these technologies enable learners to integrate their own contexts, profiles and content, in order to develop informal associations or communities of inquiry. Within educational contexts these tools enable spaces for learners to extend their own formal learning into more informal places though the fusion of web‑based tools into a task‑oriented personal learning environment. Where students are empowered to make decisions about the tools that support their personal approaches to learning, they are able develop further control over their learning experiences and move towards their own subject‑based mastery. Critically, they are able to define with whom to share their personal approaches, and how they can best connect the informal learning that occurs across their life to their formal, academic work. The personal definition or fusion of tools and tasks is afforded through individual control over the learning environment. The flowering of personal learning aims, mediated by technologies and rules of engagement, occurs within task‑specific loops where learners can interpret and process epistemological signals. In turn, where those loops are located within broader, personalised environments students can make contextual sense of their learning and extend their own educational opportunities. Moreover, they can extend their own academic decision‑making through application in other contexts, and as a result manage their own academic uncertainties. This is evidenced through a thematic study of the voices of both learners and tutors, which highlights how the readwrite web can be used proactively by educators, using specific tasks to enable learners to fuse their informal and formal learning spaces, and thereby enhance their decision‑making confidence. The structuring of learning spaces that enable users and social networks to manage their educational processes is enhanced by readwrite web approaches and tools, and in this paper is defined through a Fused Learner Integration model.

 

Keywords: learner personal learning environment formal learning informal learning readwrite web Web 2.0 thematic analysis

 

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Journal Article

Mobile City and Language Guides — New Links Between Formal and Informal Learning Environments  pp85-92

Mads Bo-Kristensen, Niels Ole Ankerstjerne, Chresteria Neutzsky-Wulff, Herluf Schelde

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp85 - 190

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Abstract

One of the major challenges in second and foreign language education, is to create links between formal and informal learning environments. Mobile City and Language Guides present examples of theoretical and practical reflections on such links. This paper presents and discusses the first considerations of Mobile City and Language Guides in language centres, upper secondary schools and universities. The core concept of Mobile City and Language Guides is geotagging. Geographical locations can be geotagged either through GPS or by marking positions directly in, e.g., Google Earth or Google Maps. Students or teachers can add various kinds of information to geotags: Photos, audio, text, movies, links, vocabulary and various language tasks. This allows the student, in self‑defined learning contexts, to down‑ and upload location‑based materials with his or her mobile phone, for immediate or later processing. More and more students are able to afford mobile phones with multimedia and broadband Internet. The potentials of user‑generated mobile‑ and web‑based content are increasing. In these years, the internet is moving from the so‑called Web 1.0 to the more user‑centered Web 2.0, i.e. Weblogs, YouTube, Google Maps, MySpace, FlickR, etc. In an educational context, Web 2.0 represents an interesting development of the relatively monologue Web 1.0, where traditional homepages often only allow minimal interaction with the site content. This paper investigates the opportunities that Mobile City and Language Guides seem to give second and foreign language students to learn from informal, location‑based, experience‑based and authentic materials; and discusses how language centres, upper secondary education and universities can involve informal learning contexts through student use of mobiles with broadband and Internet technology supporting second and foreign learning. Mobile City and Language Guides is only of several possible mobile and Internet‑based language educational scenarios. The challenge for the future, therefore, is to develop and implement new, meaningful and exciting scenarios that strengthen the linkages between formal and informal learning environments.

 

Keywords: second and foreign language education, formal and informal learning, broadband mobile technology, web 2.0, geotagging

 

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Journal Article

Adoption of Web 2.0 Technologies in Education for Health Professionals in the UK: Where are we and why?  pp165-172

Rod Ward, Pam Moule, Lesley Lockyer

© Jun 2009 Volume 7 Issue 2, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp85 - 190

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Abstract

This paper describes the findings about the use of Web 2.0 technologies in the education of health professionals in the United Kingdom (UK). The work is part of a wider study scoping the use of e‑learning. Its objectives were to: Explore issues influencing implementation and use by both early and late adopters; Identify barriers to implementation and good practice; Review the employment of e‑learning within curricula representing a range of teaching models. In phase one, a postal survey obtained data from 25 higher education institutions relating to their uptake and development in this field. A second phase identified four case studies, two from early and two late adopters, reflecting the features identified from phase one. In the case studies, interviews and focus groups with students and staff were conducted to gain a deeper understanding of the issues which were significant to them. The main findings suggested e‑learning development and use varies, with a spectrum of employment across the sector. The predominant engagement is with instructivist learning approaches managed through a Virtual Learning Environment with only limited experimentation in interactive learning online. This paper will discuss the findings from the study where they relate to the limited use of Web 2.0 technologies. It will include a discussion on the moral, legal and ethical implications of current and future developments.

 

Keywords: Web 2.0, survey, case study, e-learning, web based learning

 

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Journal Article

Podcasting to Support Students Using a Business Simulation  pp257-264

Andrea Gorra, Janet Finlay

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3, Special ICEL 2009 Issue, Editor: Florin Salajan and Avi Hyman, pp191 - 316

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Abstract

Audio or video podcasts can be a useful tool to supplement practical exercises such as business simulations. In this paper, we discuss a case study in which different types of podcast were utilised to support the delivery of a course in international business. The students work in groups and run a fictional company using business simulation software, which gives them the opportunity to evaluate their decision making skills. A number of podcasts were used as reusable learning objects for different student cohorts. Faculty members produced visually enhanced audio podcasts offering tutor discussions of key elements of the computer‑assisted business simulation used by the students. The podcasts were made available via the virtual learning environment (Blackboard Vista), as well as for subscription by web browser‑based RSS readers, such as Google and downloadable RSS readers, such as iTunes. Our evaluation of this approach to using podcasts takes into account pedagogic and technical issues. Firstly, faculty members involved in this case study were interviewed to obtain their views and experiences on the process of producing podcasts as well as the suitability of podcasts to support their teaching. Secondly, students were surveyed and interviewed about the value of the podcasts and the way in which they were used. This work is on‑going and initial informal student feedback indicates that the podcasts engaged the students and supported their understanding of the international business module. This paper presents a snapshot of the current findings which generally support the value of this innovative way of using podcasting for learning and teaching.

 

Keywords: podcasting, reusable learning resources, e-learning, web 2.0, visually-enhanced audio, business simulation

 

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Journal Article

Sharing e‑Learning Innovation across Disciplines: an Encounter between Engineering and Teacher Education  pp31-40

Nicol Pan, Henry Lau, Winnie Lai

© Jan 2010 Volume 8 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 50

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Abstract

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Keywords: e-Learning, teacher education, engineering education, TPCK, Web 2.0, interdisciplinary collaboration

 

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Journal Article

Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media Into a Problem‑Based Learning Approach?  pp13-22

Lillian Buus

© Mar 2012 Volume 10 Issue 1, ICEL 2011, Editor: Philip Balcean, pp1 - 158

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Abstract

At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem‑based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated “The Aalborg PBL model”. In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes place. In this article I would like to depart from the use of this pedagogical model, which integrates social media. The article will look at a learning design model, which could be a spring‑board scaffolding teachers at AAU in their pedagogical approach to learning design when combining the PBL approach with social media or web 2.0 activities or/and technologies. With regard to the discussions about PBL, three important characteristics of PBL can be extracted; the problem, the work process, and the solution, which can be used to distinguish between various theoretical and practical constructions of PBL – regardless initially of whether it is collaborative or cooperative. The three dimensions can then be thought of as stretched between two ends of a continuum between teacher and participant control. These fundamental questions of ownership and control seem also to be more generally applicable in relation to wider debates about social media and learning. The learning design model is based on the collaborative eLearning design (CoED) method. The CoED‑workshop methodology aims to support the design of targeted networked learning. The method scaffolds the design work of practitioners and has been developed and tried out in a number of different settings. Drawing on knowledge and theoretical concepts within the fields of design, systems development and collaborative learning, emphasis is on bringing focus and structure to the early stages of the design process. The method aims to develop design specifications and/or early prototypes within a few hours of starting work. In order to achieve one of the objectives of my PhD, I aim to further developing and elaborate on this method, which hopefully will lead to a pedagogical design method scaffolding teachers in their learning designs, taking into account the PBL approach and integration of social media and web 2.0 technologies. This article will be based on theoretical and methodological considerations within PBL, social media and web 2.0 technologies, together with learning designs trying to illustrate a pedagogical design model scaffolding teachers in their learning design when integrating social media and web 2.0 technologies into the PBL approach at AAU. The method has been tried out at the Faculty of Social Science, AAU during Spring 2011 and the article will present some of the preliminary findings in this.

 

Keywords: social media, web 2.0, PBL, learning design, CoED

 

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Journal Article

Fostering a web 2.0 ethos in a traditional e‑learning environment  pp360-368

Marie Martin, Michaela Noakes

© Aug 2012 Volume 10 Issue 3, Special ECEL issue, Editor: Sue Greener and Asher Rospigliosi, pp257 - 379

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Abstract

As technology continues to flatten the world and as Web 2.0 changes the way knowledge is created and shared, tertiary education institutions are turning increasingly to e‑learning to extend access to students globally as well as to improve the quality of their learning experience. Learning Management Systems (LMS) currently dominate the delivery of e‑learning at this level. Though these systems have extended functionality by including some Web 2.0 tools, they are generally perceived as a walled gardenŽ , essentially embodying the traditional transmission paradigm of teaching and learning rather than the philosophy of Web 2.0. This is leading, particularly in the blogosphere, to calls to break down the walls of the LMS and to explore more open online cou rses. There is, however, an emerging view that Web 2.0 ideals can be realised within an LMS environment, provided the environment is aligned with these ideals. This paper supports that view. It presents a case study of an eight‑week e‑learning course base d on this premise, offered first in spring 2011, with a second iteration in spring 2012, as part of a doctoral programme in Instructional Technology by Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, USA, and designed and delivered within an LMS by an instructor living in Northern Ireland. The course is underpinned by the concept of learning by wandering. The pedagogy is aligned with the fundamental Web 2.0 philosophy. Within broad parameters, it is flexible, student‑centred and, from an early stage, student‑led. Studen ts are encouraged to use a variety of Web 2.0 tools, according to their preferences, to collaborate in preparation for their leadership role and as a language to express their ideas and to share their learning. The teachers role is identified as sage at the side. This case study is intended to contribute to the provision of a framework for transformative e‑learning through fostering a Web 2.0 ethos within a traditional learning environment.

 

Keywords: learning management systems, Web 2.0 ethos, case study, learning by wandering, sage at the side, transformative e-learning

 

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Journal Article

Fostering a web 2.0 ethos in a traditional e‑learning environment  pp351-359

Marie Martin, Michaela Noakes

© Aug 2012 Volume 10 Issue 3, Special ECEL issue, Editor: Sue Greener and Asher Rospigliosi, pp257 - 379

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Abstract

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Keywords: learning management systems, Web 2.0 ethos, case study, learning by wandering, sage at the side, transformative e-learning

 

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