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Journal Article

Inferring a Learner´s Cognitive, Motivational and Emotional State in a Digital Educational Game  pp172-184

Michael Bedek, Paul Seitlinger, Simone Kopeinik, Dietrich Albert

© Jul 2012 Volume 10 Issue 2, Special ECGBL Issue, Editor: Dimitris Gouscos, pp159 - 256

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Abstract

Digital educational games (DEGs) possess the potential of providing an appealing and intrinsically motivating learning context. Usually this potential is either taken for granted or examined through questionnaires or interviews in the course of evaluat ion studies. However, an adaptive game would increase the probability of a DEG being actually motivating and emotionally appealing. In order to adapt the game to the learner´s motivational and emotional state while engaged with a particular game scenario, an ongoing assessment of these states is required. An explicit assessment, e.g. by questionnaires occurring repeatedly in short time intervals on the screen would probably destroy the learner´s flow experience. Thus, it is necessary to apply an approach that assesses the learner´s current states in a non‑invasive way. In the course of this paper we describe such a non‑invasive, implicit assessment procedure which is based on the interpretation of behavioral indicators. A set of behavioral indicators has been elaborated whereby some of them are derived from the theory of information foraging (Pirolli and Card, 1999). Values for each behavioral indicator (e.g. amount, frequency, seconds, etc.) are gathered after equally long lasting time slices. After each time slice, these values serve as weighted predictors to multiple regression equations for the dimensions of a motivation model, an emotion model and a construct called clearness. The motivation model is based on the two dimensions of approach and av oidance motivation. The emotion model encompasses the dimensions valence and activation. Clearness is defined as appropriate problem representation. A comparison of the resulting values on these dimensions between the current and previous time slices cove rs fluctuations of the learner`s states over time. The assessment of such changes forms the prerequisite for providing in‑game adaptations which aim to enhance the learner`s state, targeting towards a full exploitation of DEGs pedagogical potential.

 

Keywords: digital educational games, motivation, emotion, problem representation, non-invasive assessment.

 

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Journal Article

Designing educational games for computer programming: A holistic framework  pp281-298

Christos Malliarakis, Maya Satratzemi, Stelios Xinogalos

© Jun 2014 Volume 12 Issue 3, Special Edition for ECGBL 2013, Editor: Carlos Vaz de Carvalho and Paula Escudeiro, pp227 - 311

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Abstract

Abstract: Computer science is continuously evolving during the past decades. This has also brought forth new knowledge that should be incorporated and new learning strategies must be adopted for the successful teaching of all sub‑domains. For example, com puter programming is a vital knowledge area within computer science with constantly changing curriculum and its teaching remains a difficult endeavour. On the other hand, students start from a very early age to interact with computers through games and ot her entertaining multimedia software. Therefore, they seem to be keen on environments with impressive special effects and graphical interfaces where they interact with the environments elements. In response, teachers are trying to connect computer progra mming learning with computer operations that students are familiar with, which does not include textual editors for programming lines of code with no other interaction. Educational games used in computer programming courses are considered to benefit learn ing, because they motivate students towards actively participating and interacting with the games activities. Thus, we have developed an educational multiplayer game that aims to further enhance computer programming education by addressing occurring prob lems. This process, however, requires proper planning during the design of educational games, and thus the availability of adequate guidelines that include all characteristics that should be incorporated in such games. This paper aims to introduce and ela borate on a holistic framework that has been constructed as a guide towards the development of this game. To this end, we study existing frameworks that have been proposed for the design of educational games and document features currently supported by ed ucational games that teach computer programming. We conclusively propose the framework we have constructed for the design of our game. This framework can be used for the design of other computer programming‑specific educational games and extended for othe r educational domains.

 

Keywords: Keywords: computer programming, educational programming environments, educational games, holistic framework, learning process

 

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Journal Article

Motivating Factors and Tangential Learning for Knowledge Acquisition in Educational Games  pp343-354

Peter Mozelius, Andreas Fagerström, Max Söderquist

© Aug 2017 Volume 15 Issue 4, Editor: Elizabeth Boyle and Thomas Connolly, pp281 - 366

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Abstract

Game‑based learning has been a strong emerging trend in the 21st century, but several research studies on game‑based learning reports that the educational potential of games has not been fully realised. Many educational games do not combine learning outcomes with entertaining gameplay. At the same time as there is a tendency to digitise and personalise education by the use of digital games, there still exists a lack of knowledge about efficient educational game design. To identify design factors that are important for players' learning motivation this study has analysed three popular entertainment games that were selected for their educational values. The aim of the study is to explore, analyse and discuss, if and how motivating factors and intrinsic integration of knowledge in educational games might be related to players' perceived knowledge acquisition. Test players with experience of the selected digital games were recruited from online gaming forums where a questionnaire also was used to collect data. Lepper's and Malone's set of heuristics for intrinsic motivation in interactive learning environments were used in a combination with Habgood's and Ainsworth's theory of intrinsic integration to examine the relationship between these factors in the educational games. Beside the direct acquisition of knowledge from gaming there was also an analysis of the concept of tangential learning. Results from a t‑test showed that tangential learning was significantly more important for two of the tested games. Correlation analysis revealed several relationships between factors, where intrinsic integration was pointed out as particularly interesting for knowledge acquisition and tangential learning. Results showed weak or no relationships for Lepper and Malone factors, but with some tendencies for control, imagination and competition.

 

Keywords: Educational games, Intrinsic integration, Tangential learning, Game-based learning, Learning motivation

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 10 Issue 2, Special ECGBL Issue / Jul 2012  pp159‑256

Editor: Dimitris Gouscos

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Keywords: activity theory, alternative approaches, budget constraints, chemistry, classroom culture, collaboration, communities of practice, complex systems, connectivism, constructionist and inquiry-based learning, context, dialog, digital educational games, digital games, emotion, epistemological beliefs, formal learning, game development, game experience, game-based learning, games, half-baked microworlds, identity, inquiry, leadership, MMOGs, MMORPGs, modelling, motivation, non-invasive assessment, pedagogical issues, performance, play, problem representation, self-organization, serious games, situated play, sustainability, teacher’s role, theory, virtual teams,

 

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