The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

Lecture Recording: Structural and Symbolic Information vs. Flexibility of Presentation  pp219-226

Daniel Stolzenberg, Stefan Pforte

© Dec 2007 Volume 5 Issue 3, ICEL 2007, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp173 - 250

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Abstract

Rapid eLearning is an ongoing trend which enables flexible and cost‑effective creation of learning materials. Especially, lecture recording has turned out to be a lightweight method particularly suited for existing lectures and blended learning strategies. In order to not only sequentially playback but offer full fledged navigation, search and inspection of the recorded lecture, chapter marks and search indices have to be embedded. To solve this, two basic approaches for lecture recording tools can be identified — both of them having certain advantages and drawbacks. On the one hand there are systems based on symbolic representation of common slideshow formats like MS PowerPoint. Therefore, they preserve structure and symbol information contained therein, but are lacking flexibility of supported dynamic and interactive formats. On the other hand there are systems based on pixel representation and screen grabbing technologies. While supporting any presentation content, structural and symbolic information cannot be extracted directly and thus has to be post‑processed from the recorded video. This paper discusses a perspective of combining these approaches by widening the slide‑metaphor to a more flexible scene‑based presentation, preserving both the structural and symbolic information. One possible attempt for this is identified by introducing a browser‑based scene concept. Symbolic information can be directly extracted from the XHTML source code and structural information derives from switching through scenes. The browser itself is capable of presenting a wide range of dynamic and interactive formats, thus offering more flexible presentations. For approving the proposed concepts, a prototype called "Virtual Overhead" was developed and evaluated.

 

Keywords: rapid e-learning, lecture recording, lightweight content production, browser interactivity

 

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Journal Article

Eating Your Lectures and Having Them too: is Online Lecture Availability Especially Helpful in "Skills‑Based" Courses?  pp281-288

Steve Joordens, Ada Le, Raymond Grinnell, Sophie Chrysostomou

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3, Special ICEL 2009 Issue, Editor: Florin Salajan and Avi Hyman, pp191 - 316

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Abstract

At the University of Toronto at Scarborough, we provide enhanced flexibility to our students using a blended learning approach (i.e., the webOption) whereby classes are videotaped as they are offered in a traditional manner, then posted online for subsequent student access. Students can attend lectures live, watch them online at their convenience, or both. Previous research examining the webOption in the context of Introductory Psychology revealed that (a) students were satisfied with the webOption in general, (b) students used and appreciated the pause and seek features afforded by the webOption interface, and (c) those who used the pause and seek features performed slightly better on exams (Bassili & Joordens, 2008). The current research examines similar issues in the context of two mathematics courses. These courses differ from the lecture‑based Introductory Psychology class in their emphasis on the teaching of mathematical proofs; cognitive skills that, like any other skill, are enhanced with practice (Schneider & Shiffrin, 1977). Access to online lectures allows students to re‑experience the professor as they teach these skills. Given this, the webOption might be especially potent in these learning contexts. Surprisingly, the results we report here do not confirm that prediction. Students do use and appreciate the features of the webOption as was the case in our previous work, but those students who augmented their class attendance with online viewing, and those who used the lecture‑ control features the most, were actually the students who performed most poorly. Said another way, those students who had the most trouble with the course did indeed use the webOption as a way of understanding the material better but, interestingly, doing so did not result in better performance. Several possible reasons for this surprising result are considered.

 

Keywords: online lectures, webOption, calculus, performance, surface versus deep learning

 

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Journal Article

The Lecture is Dead Long Live the e‑Lecture  pp93-100

Duncan Folley

© Mar 2010 Volume 8 Issue 2, ECEL 2009, Editor: Shirley Williams, Florin Salajan, pp51 - 208

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Abstract

This research paper investigates if the traditional lecture is no longer appropriate for Neomillennial Learning Styles and whether an alternative blended approach couldshould be used? Over the past decade the lecture as we know it, has gradually been under attack from constructivists, Twigg (1999) for example argues that the lecture is in the main a one‑way process with little or no active participation and does not allow the student an opportunity to learn in a collaborative form. Exley & Dennick (2004) quote an unknown source as saying, "Lecturing is the transference of the notes of the lecturer to the notes of the student without passing through the brains of either" (p3). To counter balance this Race (1999) explores different methods of how active, interactive learning can take place within a lecture. With these and many more damming critiques of the lecture it is no wonder that HE is looking at alternative methods of delivery. This research explores whether there is a place for lectures and if blended learning technology can enhance the learning experience given within a lecture theatre environment. The primary research is based on two questionnaires, the first to a cohort of undergraduate students and the second to academic staff at Leeds Metropolitan University. The results of the research shows that students are demanding more for their tuition fees, this is in agreement with the BBC education reporter Sean Coughlan (2009) who reported that "Fees fuel campus consumer culture" and also discussed the Swansea University's student paper who following the recent bad weather reported "Students lose £20 a lecture after snow sends university into lockdown." (par 2). The paper also looks at the effects of increasing demands being placed on students' time and how this has developed the students into becoming more strategic learners in what they are prepared to attend and how much time they are willing to give to a subject. Therefore the use and availability of blended learning techniques (VLE, podcast) was investigated. The research shows that both students and academics see value in lectures, however the traditional didactic form of lecturing needs to change and academics need to embrace new technology, which can enhance the lecture and as such the overall teaching and learning experience.

 

Keywords: lecture, strategic learners, podcast, blended learning

 

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Journal Article

Sage on the Stage in the Digital Age: The Role of Online Lecture in Distance Learning  pp1-14

Q B. Chung

© Jan 2005 Volume 3 Issue 1, Editor: Shirley Williams, pp1 - 81

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Abstract

The Internet can be a useful tool that can enhance interactivity in classes. Accordingly, offering distance learning courses using the Web, especially in the asynchronous mode for the additional flexibility of time, is becoming an established practice in higher education. Web‑based distance learning comes with numerous benefits, but not without worries for potentials deficiencies. One such deficiency in the current distance learning framework is the lack of lecture, the most relied‑upon and proven means o f instruction in the traditional classroom settings. This paper raises an issue of the lack of lectures in Web‑based distance learning, and proposes that streaming video take the role of online lecture in that setting. Described in this paper are the rati onale to put the lecture back into e‑learning in higher education, two case studies in which the steps were taken to implement the proposed method, and the feedback from the students who took such courses in the undergraduate business curriculum and the M BA program.

 

Keywords: : Web-based education, Asynchronous learning, e-Learning in Higher Education, Sage on the Stage, Guide on the Side, Online Lecture

 

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