The Electronic Journal of e-Learning provides perspectives on topics relevant to the study, implementation and management of e-Learning initiatives
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Journal Article

Face‑to‑face vs. Real‑time Clinical Education: no Significant Difference  pp287-296

Y.Q. Mohammed, G. Waddington, P. Donnan

© Feb 2008 Volume 5 Issue 4, e-Learning in Health Care, Editor: Pam Moule, pp251 - 304

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Abstract

The main objective of this pilot research project was to determine whether the use of an internet broadband link to stream physiotherapy clinical education workshop proceedings in "real‑time" is of equivalent educational value to the traditional face‑to‑face experience. This project looked at the benefits of using the above technology as an educational tool and its impact on educators only, it did not investigate possible related factors such as the cost of employing this technology nor the technicalities of setting up the proposed technology as these objectives were beyond the scope of the study. In 2006 three physiotherapy educators' workshops were selected for streaming at the University of Canberra. Two groups of educators attended the workshops at geographically separate venues, face‑to‑face (on‑site) and real‑time internet streaming (off‑site). Group one (on‑site) attended face‑to‑face lectures at the Canberra Hospital ACT Australia; lectures were streamed using a standard personal computer and digital camera to group two (off‑site) at the University of Canberra and Calvary Hospital ACT. At the end of the workshops all participants completed the questionnaire survey. Obtained results were analyzed using t‑tests. No significant difference was found between the participants' assessment of the educational value derived from either off or on‑site attendance at the workshop.

 

Keywords: face-to-face, real-time, educators, clinical education, interactions internet broadband, telemedicine, videoconferencing

 

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Journal Article

Efficacy of Teaching Clinical Clerks and Residents how to Fill out the Form 1 of the Mental Health Act Using an e‑Learning Module  pp239-246

Sarah Garside, Anthony Levinson, Sophie Kuziora, Michael Bay, Geoffrey

© Dec 2009 Volume 7 Issue 3, Special ICEL 2009 Issue, Editor: Florin Salajan and Avi Hyman, pp191 - 316

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Abstract

Background: Every physician in Ontario needs to know how to fill out a Form 1 in order to legally hold a person against their will for a psychiatric assessment. These forms are frequently inaccurately filled out, which could constitute wrongful confinement and, in extreme circumstances, could lead to fines as large as $25,000. Training people to fill out a Form 1 accurately is a large task, and e‑learning (Internet‑based training) provides a potentially efficient model for health human resources training on the Form 1. Objective: In this study, we looked at the efficacy of an e‑learning module on the Form 1 by comparing baseline knowledge and skills with posttest performance. Methods: 7 medical students and 15 resident physicians were recruited for this study from within an academic health sciences setting in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (McMaster University). The intervention took place over 1 hour in an educational computing lab and included a pretest (with tests of factual knowledge, clinical reasoning, and demonstration of skill filling out a Form 1), the e‑learning module intervention, and a posttest. The primary outcome was the change between pre‑ and posttest performance. A scoring system for grading the accuracy of the Form 1 was developed and two blinded raters marked forms independently. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two sequences of assessments (A then B vs B then A), with a balanced design determining which test the participants received as either the pretest or posttest. Inter‑rater reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation. Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Results: The Intraclass Correlation (ICC) as the measure for inter‑rater reliability was 0.98. For all outcome measures of knowledge, clinical reasoning, and skill at filling out the Form 1 there was a statistically significant improvement between pretest and posttest performance (knowledge, F(1,21) 54.5, p<0.001; clinical reasoning, F(1,21) 9.39, p=0.006; Form 1 skill, F(1,21) 15.7, p=0.001). Further analysis showed no significant differences or interactions with other variables such as between raters, the order of assessment, or trainee type. Conclusions: Under laboratory conditions, this e‑learning module demonstrated substantial efficacy for training medical students and residents on the theory and practice of filling out the Form 1 of the Mental Health Act. E‑learning may prove to be an efficient and cost‑effective medium for training physicians on this important medico‑legal aspect of care. Further research is required to look at the longer‑term impact of training and broader implementation strategies across the province for medical trainees and practicing physicians.

 

Keywords: medicine, skills, training, healthcare, education, psychiatry

 

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Journal Issue

Volume 5 Issue 4, e-Learning in Health Care / Dec 2007  pp251‑304

Editor: Pam Moule

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Editorial

E‑learning is viewed as one way to support the development of healthcare professionals, offering flexible access to materials which enable practitioners to meet life‑long learning agendas. As a consequence a number of health professionals and health care institutions are looking to technology to provide necessary education, training materials and opportunities for personal and professional development and growth. The growing impetus to develop and embrace e‑learning in health care led to the convening of a mini‑track at the 6th European Conference on E‑Learning (ECEL) held in Denmark in 2007 and to invitations to support this Special Edition of the journal.

The papers present current international developments in the sector and capture the range of engagement in e‑learning from the instructivist provision of information through to engaging students in constructivist learning online. A range of health care professions is also represented in the discussions, as are differing education levels, from undergraduate to post graduate students and practitioners. Mohammed, Waddington and Donnan describe the use of an Internet broadband link to stream a ‘real time’ workshop to physiotherapists, whilst Burgess presents the use of e‑learning in a Nurse Prescribing Programme as part of a blended learning approach. Learner engagement through interactive online packages is described by Gilchrist and Lockyer et al. The paper by Lockyer et al additionally explores issues of transferring e‑learning into practice and the potential effects on patient care, a much under‑researched area. Pulman presents the benefits and limitations of project Virtual Europe, case scenarios that encourage learners to construct their learning through evaluating different approaches to health care across Europe. The final paper by Courtney focuses on the use of e‑learning by lecturing staff in health care. The use of an online Community of Practice to support lecturers developing Learning Objects (LOs) is considered and discussions developed to consider the role of LOs in practice education.

 

Keywords: Box and whisker plot, Boxplots, cancer care, clinical education, Communities of Practice, community development support, Designated Medical Practitioner, educators, e-learning, evaluation, face-to-face, health education, interactions, intercultural, international, internet broadband, Interprofessional learning, interprofessional Learning Objects, Interprofessional Practice, Learning Objects, nurse prescribing, nursing education, qualitative research, real-time, Reified Objects, Reusable learning object, simulated community, telemedicine, videoconferencing, Virtual Europe, workplace learning

 

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